Please upgrade your web browser now. Internet Explorer 6 is no longer supported.
Flood warning Rainfall Prediction (Canterbury Headwaters) More Info

Glossary

  • E-Box
    an environmental resource for schools. "Your environment, Canterbury" (called E-box for short) is a twice-yearly publication that investigates local environmental issues. It is written for teachers and students, can be photocopied and it contains activities, links to the curriculum and Environmental Education ideas. Download E-boxes
  • Ecological footprint
    a measure of the 'load' imposed by a given population on nature. It represents the land area necessary to sustain current levels of resource consumption and waste discharge by that population.
  • Ecological health
    refers to the condition of an ecosystem and its ability to function normally supporting the life-forms and processes naturally associated with it.
  • Ecology
    the relationship between organisms and between organisms and their physical surroundings, and the study of them.
  • Ecosystem
    plants, animals, their physical environment, and the dynamic processes that link them.
  • Ecotoxicity
    in relation to hazardous substances - means causing ill-health, injury, or death to any living organism. Read more on hazardous substances.
  • Effective Irrigation Season Rainfall
    Effective irrigation season rainfall is the amount of rain that will contribute to crop growth over the nominal irrigation season. In determining this amount, provision has been made for: - rainfall that occurs in 4 out of 5 years, and - excluding daily rainfall amounts of less than 5 mm, or cumulative rainfall amounts in consecutive days in excess of 50 mm.
  • Eigenmodel
    a condensed form of groundwater model whereby time series of groundwater levels or aquifer discharge may be related to recharge and abstraction.
  • El Niño
    a Pacific-wide climate cycle that affects air pressure, wind, sea-surface temperature and rainfall on a several-year time scale.
  • Elections
    local authority elections throughout New Zealand are held every 3 years, and are conducted by postal vote. The elections are conducted under the provisions of the Local Electoral Act 2001, the Local Electoral Regulations 2001 and the Local Government Act 2002. Read more about Regional Council elections.
  • Endemic
    refers to species only found within a certain area. “Endemic to Canterbury” means only found in Canterbury.
  • Energy conservation
    a reduction in energy use. Read more about energy.
  • Energy efficiency
    any measure of the ratio of useful energy services to energy input. Additionally, an increase in energy efficiency is when either energy inputs are reduced for a given level of service, or there are increased or enhanced services for a given amount of energy inputs. Read more about energy.
  • Enforcement order
    is made by the Environment Court requiring action to be taken or ceased or reimbursement to be provided. For more information, see the Enforcement Tools page.
  • Engineering lifelines
    transport, energy, communications, water, and wastewater facilities and networks.
  • Envelope plot
    graphical means of displaying time-series groundwater level data showing how recent results relate to maximum, minimum and mean values for each month.
  • Environment Court
    a Specialist Court where people can go to appeal decisions made by councils on either a policy statement or plan, or on a resource consent application. For more information, see the Environment Court's website.
  • Environment Enhancement Fund
    a contestable fund which provides grants of up to $5,000 to individuals and groups working to protect and enhance Canterbury's indigenous biodiversity. The Fund can also be applied to for recognition of past work. The Fund is open from 1 June to 31 August each year and funding is announced that December. Find out more details about the Environment Enhancement Fund.
  • Environmental acceptance criteria
    established concentrations of contaminants in soil, water, sediment or air that are used for preliminary assessment of sample results from contaminated site investigations.
  • Environmental Consultant
    a consultant who investigates the effects of activities on the environment. Currently environmental consultants are not required to obtain any specific accreditation/qualification to perform contaminated site work. When engaging a consultant to perform work on contaminated land, it is recommended that you ask them for details of how much experience they have in undertaking this type of work, and how familiar they are with New Zealand’s contaminated land management guidelines. Contact us for a list of environmental consultants, or look in the yellow pages.
  • Environmental Flow
    Environmental flows are the same as minimum flows but the term is perhaps a more meaningful description of why they are necessary. Environmental flows are set to enable access to surface water use to gain social and economic benefits while protecting instream values (cultural, ecological, amenity and recreation).
  • Environmental incidents
    calls to the Pollution Hotline are logged as environmental incidents.
  • Environmental results anticipated
    the expected result or outcome on the environment as a consequence of implementing the policy or policies and methods of implementation. It provides a means of assessing the success of the objectives, policies and methods.
  • Enviroschools
    a whole school approach to education for sustainability. With support from the school community, students plan, design and take action to create a sustainable school environment. Read more about Enviroschools.
  • Enviroschools Canterbury
    a partnership between The Enviroschools Foundation and local organisations and agencies. A regional team offers support to schools across Canterbury in the journey to become a sustainable school community.
  • Epidemiological studies
    statistical studies which attempt to link human health effects with a specific cause.
  • Erosion
    includes processes of wearing away of the land surface by natural agents and the transport of the material that results. (See also induced soil erosion.) Read more about erosion.
  • Evapotranspiration
    the return of water vapour to the air by evaporation from land and water surfaces and by the transpiration of water from vegetation. Irrigation-enhanced EVT is due to the application of water, which enhances plant growth and transpiration. Irrigation also keeps the ground damp, which increases the effectiveness of rainfall to recharge to the groundwater below.
  • Exceedence
    a measured value which exceeds the value set by an environmental standard. Standards may include requirements that ambient concentrations of certain pollutants may be exceeded only on one or a few times per year.
  • Explanation
    a statement to provide background and facilitate understanding. Explanations are not intended to extend or distort the literal meaning and intent of policies.
  • Exposure Pathway
    a route that a chemical follows to move from the contaminant source to receptors. ‘Preferential pathways’ are of particular concern for contaminated sites. Some examples of preferential pathways are: service lines such as storm-water lines, areas of highly permeable ground such as gravel, gradients, streams, poorly constructed groundwater wells. Some pathways can also be receptors because exposure to the chemical(s) presents risks (e.g. to living organisms within a stream)
  • Ecosourced
    Plants raised from seed or cuttings obtained from parent trees growing within a several kilometre radius of the project site. Read more about planting exposed areas.
  • Emergent species
    Tall forest species . For example, Totara, Rimu, which grow above the forest canopy. Read more about planting exposed areas.
  • Ecosystem services
    services to humans that ecosystems provide such as water purification, soil production, moderating of flood flows.
  • Endangered
    a plant or animal species in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the adverse causal factors continue. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines an endangered species as one that “faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future”.
  • Environmental limits
    the point or range of conditions beyond which there is a significant risk of abrupt irreversible, or difficult to reverse, changes to the benefits derived from natural resource systems with impacts on human well-being.
  • Evidence-based
    based on systematically-gathered evidence.